The ‘Constructive Conversations- Kōrero Whakaaetanga Research Project, funded by the New Zealand Foundation of Research, Science and Technology, examined the social, cultural, ethical and spiritual implications, for New Zealanders, of new health biotechnologies. The project was guided by the whakatauki (proverb):
Hutia te rito o te harakeke. Kei hea te komako, e ko? Ki mai ki ahau, he aha te mea nui o te ao? Maku e ki atu He tangata, he tangata, he tangata
Pluck the heart from the flax bush - where will the bellbird be? Ask me, what is the most important thing in the world? I will reply, it is people, it is people, it is people
This whakatauki highlights the need to maintain balance in the natural world and the importance of understanding the interrelated connectedness between people, the things they do, and the environment. It accentuates the importance of valuing people and human life and connects to the Kōrero Whakaaetanga project by stressing the importance of ensuring emerging biotechnologies technologies are not created at the expense of the natural world. It also relates to tikanga-based (cultural protocols) processes by placing at the forefront the guiding principle of ensuring the dignity and mana (prestige) of those engaging in the discussions is maintained and respected. The key principle of a tikanga based dialogue process emphasises the maintaining of the mana of participants and on the proper observance of rituals (Everts, 1988, p. 131).
Central to ensuring research participants feel comfortable and safe to participate fully is manaakitanga (hospitality), an important Māori value that Māori evaluate themselves against (i.e. the success of a marae (Māori meeting place) is measured against how well guests are cared for (Mead, 2003)). Mead (2003, p. 29) writes that ‘all tikanga are underpinned by the high value placed on manaakitanga – nurturing relationships, looking after people, and being very careful about how others are treated’. Similarly, Barlow (1991) describes manaakitanga as the most important attribute in a host.
Tikanga Māori (Māori cultural practice) aims to ensure that people who come together for a hui (gathering) are well-hosted and cared for. This coming together proceeds through ‘rituals of encounter’ that are sourced from tikanga, and provide a way for people to gather on Māori terms (Salmond, 1976; Smith, 1999). As Salmond (1976, p. 126) states, ‘…the ritual is used to open up the proceedings. It is flexible in timing, and can adapt to almost any situtation’.
Māori meet for a range of reasons, in a variety of locations, and in varied numbers (Mead, 2003; Salmond, 1976). Regardless of the reason for the hui, there is often discussion and debate among attendees about political affairs impacting on Māori at the time. When a hui is called for the express purpose of these discussions, then the aim of the discussion and debate may be the development of some consensus opinion and/or group decision-making (Salmond, 1976).
The role of talk within these contexts cannot be over-estimated. Talk is a central pillar of Māori society. Te kai a te rangaira, he kōrero - the food of chiefs is talk (Māori Proverb). Talk is linked with the transmission of knowledge and with the establishment of identity and a place to stand (Ihimaera et al., 1991; Walker, 1992). For example, before the arrival of the newcomers (i.e., colonists) Māori literature was oral, transmitted by each generation to the next through means such as waiata (song), haka, tauparapara, and karanga (call) (Karetu, 1992). It is therefore central to any ‘rituals of encounter’ and hui activity.
In his book entitled ‘Tikanga Māori’ Hirini Moko Mead (2003, p. 12) describes tikanga Māori as ‘the set of beliefs associated with practices and procedures to be followed in conducting the affairs of a group or individual’. This broad position on tikanga acknowledges many of the definitions of tikanga that Mead explores in his book, as well as the multiple and varied views on tikanga that are held by different hapü (sub-tribes) and iwi (tribes).
Tikanga provides pathways for Māori wishing to come together and interact (Mead, 2003). Mead (2003) makes two additional points about tikanga Māori that are particularly pertinent in this context: first, that tikanga ‘is part of the intellectual property of Māori’ (p.13); and second, that tikanga is ‘not frozen in time’ (p.21).
Tikanga processes have previously been linked to the World Café dialogue process. Rosalie Capper (nd) describes a Café as involving ‘hosted conversations with an agreed stated purpose or set of core questions which are important to the life of that organisation or community’. Māori rituals of encounter were central to a three day Café conducted in Aotearoa to progress as iwi’s (tribe’s) Treaty of Waitangi claims. For example, the coming together of the 400+ people began with whaikorero (speeches), waiata (songs) and kai (food). In addition, whakatauki (traditional sayings) and kaumatua (elders) provided guidance to the gathering and speaking rules (e.g., not interrupting) were in place.
In the past these processes have been acknowledged as part of ‘by Māori, for Māori’ research (see, for example, Cram, 2001; Irwin, 1994). Cram (2001) includes these processes in her discussion of research ethics, under the Kaupapa Māori (i.e., ‘by Māori, for Māori) research practice of ‘Aroha ki te tangata’ (a respect for people) (cf. Smith, 1999, for the first discussion of these practices). Tikanga processes of first encounter are described as a way of reducing the space, or any perceived status hierarchy based on academic training, between researchers and research participants. In te ao Māori (the Māori world) these processes also remove other forms of separation between groups coming together (e.g., spiritual separation) (Irwin, 1994). Our task in the current research project has been to continue the formalisation of these processes and the theorisation of their link with dialogue.
In order to create a setting in which these concepts were ‘alive’ and actioned, we engaged in tikanga processes in our ‘rituals of first encounter’ as well as providing food and, when the hui was over, closing and departing according to tikanga. We outline these practices below.
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Powhiri/Whakatau – Welcome ceremony
Powhiri/Whakatau – Welcome ceremony
A whakatau is a welcoming ceremony and is used to begin a hui. It is different from a pōwhiri (i.e., the welcoming of visitors to a marae (Barlow, 1991)), in that it is considered less formal, with fewer protocols observed and often conducted away from the marae. However Mead (2003, p. 119) observes that many pōwhiri ceremonies are ‘low key and friendly occasions’ and the tikanga process used in this project is not unlike the whānau powhiri (sic.) described by Mead (2003). Thus the line between pōwhiri and whakatau is somewhat blurred.
In the current project the first part of the whakatau involved the exchanges of greetings between the research party and the participant party. It was also likely that the groups had a karakia (prayer). The second part of the whakatau involved the researchers providing information about the project. The sharing of the whakatauki described above was an important part of this.
The whakatau was thus the first part of the ritual of encounter in the current project. Although tailored to this project it is also a comfortable and familiar exchange within Māori contexts. At the end of the whakatau the two groups can relate to each other as one group.
Sharing of Kai (food)
Sharing of Kai (food)
The sharing of kai (food) by people who have recently come together for a hui is one way of removing the tapu (sacredness) that can keep people separate. Whilst provision of food and hospitality (manaakitanga) is good practice and appealing to many cultures, it has significance for Māori processes in that as well as enhancing the mana (status) of the host food lifts the tapu (sacred or restricted) and allows matters to become noa (unrestricted). It moves proceedings from the formal to the informal and paves the way for good discussions.
Mihimihi (introductions/setting the scene)
Mihimihi (introductions/setting the scene)
A next key element of the tikanga process is the mihimihi, or greeting and introducing of oneself to the group, that occurs near the beginning of the hui. Mihimihi is important as it establishes connections between members of a group. These connections can be about shared whakapapa (genealogy), experiences of places, and common knowledge of people and relationships. Similarly, Mead (2003, p. 28) describes the whanaungatanga (connection) principle as reaching ‘beyond whakapapa relationships and [including] relationships to non-kin persons who have become like kin through shared experiences’.
Mihimihi is also a response to the kaupapa that has brought the group together and may therefore also be about how the connections between members of the group are suited to the kaupapa. This process is important even if the group knows each other as the kaupapa may be new. Even so, with familiar people the mihimihi process may be brief.
Mihimihi is therefore about establishing relationships, trust, and a safe and comfortable environment in which to speak and share, even if the sharing is debate or argumentation. Kaumatua (elders) who are knowledgeable about whakapapa can facilitate this environment by adding to the understanding of how people are connected. Even those who know each other well may receive additional insight into their connectedness through the guiding hand of a knowledgeable elder.
The mihimihi also establishes the context for discussion and debate as a Māori context. Implicit in this are ‘rules’ for how discussion takes place, how conflict is expressed, and what people take away with them from such a hui. For example, conflict may be acceptably expressed within a wharenui (Māori meeting house) but should not be carried into the wharekai (Māori eating house). At their heart the establishment of relationships and the ‘rules’ for conduct are about respecting people.
Poroporoaki (Farewells and acknowledgements)
Poroporoaki (Farewells and acknowledgements)
A poroporoaki is a farewell ceremony (Barlow, 1991). Mead (2003, p. 365) translates poroporoaki as ‘leavetaking’. According to Barlow (1991, p. 96) the poroporoaki is an opportunity at the end of a hui to ‘recapitulate the events of the hui, discuss the benefits that arose out of the meeting, and express the hope that they will continue in their respective ways in peace and happiness’.
We used the poroporoaki to gain feedback about the research process and to reflect on the session as a whole. It instigated a splitting of the group back into researchers and participants and, in this way, facilitated leave taking. Once the participants had spoken they were thanked and we concluded with the project whakatauki. The poroporoaki is crucial for ending matters positively, setting up for any future discussions and identifying key issues needing further consideration.
The Kōrero Whakaaetanga project aimed to incorporate Māori perspectives into all components of the research and accordingly it was decided to use tikanga-based processes to conduct research group sessions. We wanted to ensure that this was meaningful and not merely ‘window dressing’.
Although it is commonplace for Māori cultural practices... to be included in the planning of public occasions, they are typically additions rather than an integral part of the proceedings, ‘clip-ons’ carried out by Māori according to tikanga…(Metge, 2002, p. 3).
The implementation of a tikanga process within the Kōrero Whakaaetanga project was done with the realisation that, for Māori, we were formalising the processes of engagement between groups of people that is a natural way of engaging with each other. We were not surprised that the Māori groups were not only comfortable with this approach but in fact insisted upon it, ‘it would be an ominous sign if they were omitted’ (Salmond, 1976, p. 19). The effectiveness of these processes within Māori society instilled confidence that the tikanga processes were worth incorporating into the methodology. As stated by Metge (2001, p. 6),
Once these tikanga are brought to consciousness, it is clear that they are rooted in a deep understanding of human psychology. When applied by skilled practitioners, they are highly effective in achieving their aims. They are a resource Pākehā have been foolish to neglect.
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On reflection the attempts to date to incorporate tikanga derived tools to complement our dialogue processes have provided us with valuable learning and insights. Anxieties about inappropriate use of Māori cultural icons such as the powhiri and karakia, just getting tikanga wrong (although there is no wrong as we are producing our version of tikanga), causing offence, preferring to concentrate on ways of doing things that we are accustomed to, or not wanting to go into sensitive areas where one feels under prepared or unskilled were all influencing factors here.
Without a doubt, Māori have mixed western ways of doing things with the ancient rituals passed down through the generations resulting in very effective tikanga Māori processes for ensuring the safety and comfort of research participants. Tikanga processes ensure that all those who want to have their say are given the space to do so and whilst these processes will not suit all people or situations, these processes have proven to be very successful within Māori communities for many years. However, the test as to whether non-Māori benefit or embrace these traditions will be tested over time. As New Zealand increases its cultural confidence and maturity and as Māori culture becomes more visible the protocols outlined in this paper may become second nature in this country.
Barlow, C. (1991). Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Māori culture. Auckland: Oxford University Press.Capper, R. (nd). Where the World Café meets the hui in Aotearoa New Zealand. World Café website.Cram, F. (2001) Rangahau Māori: Tona Tika, Tona Pono. In M. Tolich (Ed.), Research Ethics in Aotearoa. Auckland: Longman. p.35-52.Cram, F., Phillips, H., Tipene-Matua, B., Parsons, M. & Taupo, T. (2004). A ‘parallel process’? Beginning a constructive conversation about a Māori methodology. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 1, 14-19.Everts, J.F. (1988). The Marae-based hui: An indigenous vehicle to address cross-cultural discrimination in New Zealand. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 13, 130-134.Ihimaera, W., et al., (1993). (Eds.). Te Ao Mārama. Regaining Aotearoa: Māori writers speak out. Volume 2. He whakaatanga o te ao. The reality. Auckland: Reed.Irwin, K. (1994). Māori research methods and processes: An exploration. SITES, 28, 25-43.Karetu, T. (1992). Language and protocol of the marae. In M. King (Ed.), Te Ao Hurihuri. Aspects of Māoritanga. Auckland: Reed. (Reprinted 2003.) pp. 28-41.Mead, H.M. (2003). Tïkanga Māori: Living by Māori values. Wellington: Huia Publishers.Metge, J. (2001). Kōrero tahi: talking together. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Salmond, A. (1976). Hui (2nd Edition). Auckland: Reed.Smith, L.T. (1999). Decolonizing methodology: Research and indigenous peoples. New York: Zed Books & Dunedin: Otago University PressWalker, R. (1992). Marae: A place to stand. In M. King (Ed.), Te Ao Hurihuri. Aspects of Māoritanga. Auckland: Reed. (Reprinted 2003.) pp.170-182.
The research project referred to in this paper is funded by the Foundation of Research, Science and Technology research grant to the University of Canterbury (UOCX0221). The programme leaders were Rosemary Du Plessis and Bevan Tipene Matua. Both Bevan and Murray Parsons have sadly passed away.We acknowledge the helpful feedback of our research colleagues to the development of this paper; namely, Rosemary Du Plessis, Joanna Goven, Andrew Moore and Anne Scott. Correspondence should be sent to Fiona Cram.Suggested citation: Tipene-Matua, B., Phillips, H., Cram, F., Parsons, M. & Taupo, K. (2009). Old ways of having new conversations: Basing qualitative research within Tikanga Māori. Auckland: Katoa Ltd.
What are the Māori research principles? ›
The Māori ethics framework references four tikanga based principles (whakapapa (relationships), tika (research design), manaakitanga (cultural and social responsibility), and mana (justice and equity) as the primary ethical principles in relation to research ethics.What is Kaupapa Māori research methods? ›
Kaupapa Māori Research is neither fixed nor rigid. It is open- ended, it is ethical, systematic and accountable. It is scientific, open to existing methodologies, informed and critical. BUT, it comes from tangata whenua, from whānau, hapu and iwi.What is the difference between a pōwhiri and a mihi Whakatau? ›
The main difference between a pōwhiri and a mihi whakatau is that while a pōwhiri may be conducted on a Marae, a mihi whakatau can be done in other locations and may not feature a karanga (the call of the woman).What is an example of Kaupapa Māori research? ›
Kaupapa - the collective philosophy principle
In Māori education, for example, 'Te Aho Matua' is a formal charter that has collectively been articulated by Māori working in Kaupapa Māori initiatives. This vision connects Māori aspirations to political, social, economic and cultural well-being.
- Whakaiti - humility. Whakaiti is a key term in Māori leadership. ...
- Ko tau rourou and manaakitanga - altruism. ...
- Whanaungatanga - others. ...
- Tāria te wā and kaitiakitanga - long-term thinking, guardianship. ...
- Tikanga Māori - cultural authenticity.
- Discuss intellectual property frankly. ...
- Be conscious of multiple roles. ...
- Follow informed-consent rules. ...
- Respect confidentiality and privacy. ...
- Tap into ethics resources.
The three Treaty principles identified by the 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy – partnership, participation and active protection – provide a guide to practical and effective use of the framework at all levels of the health sector.What is a Māori framework? ›
The aim of the framework is to improve the quality of care afforded to whānau Māori across Aotearoa New Zealand and advance the uptake and implementation of te ao Māori and mātauranga Māori concepts into general health system design and health practice for all.Which Māori health model is most widely used? ›
The Māori holistic model of health, te whare tapa whā, reminds you to take care of all the different aspects of your life to support your wellbeing.What are the 7 steps of a pōwhiri? ›
- Karanga (call) This is the first and unique call of welcome in the pōwhiri. ...
- Whaikōrero (speeches) Formal speech making follows the karanga. ...
- Waiata (song) ...
- Koha (gift) ...
- Harirū (shaking hands) ...
- Kai (food)
What is the difference between a mihi and a Mihimihi? ›
A mihi is a greeting while a pepeha is a form of introduction that establishes identity and heritage. In formal settings, the pepeha forms part of an individual's mihi. A group situation where everyone gives their mihi (including their pepeha) is called a mihimihi. This is often held at the beginning of a hui.What are the stages of a Whakatau? ›
Order of proceedings:
Karanga – call to enter. Whaikōrero – speeches from home side. Whaikōrero – speeches from guests. Whakamārama – Explanation.
- Carving (te toi whakairo)
- Tattooing (tā moko)
- The koru motif.
- Weaving (raranga) and traditional clothing.
- Music (te pūoro) and dance (kapa haka)
- Māori literature.
- Film and broadcasting.
Research is an English word that carries with it western cultural assumptions, whereas rangahau is grounded in Te Ao Māori. Therein lies the critical difference.” Wheturangi says the rangahau work being undertaken at Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, while relatively new, is important.How do I research my whakapapa? ›
The greatest resource for finding whakapapa is your whānau.
Record your siblings and their children and so on. List dates of births, marriages, deaths, baptisms and places. Once you have recorded all that you know, speak with as many of your whānau members as you can. Be patient, undemanding and be prepared to listen.
This formal custom is very important and taken seriously by Māori. It is highly disrespectful to eat, drink or talk amongst others during the welcome.What God did the Māori believe in? ›
At the centre of Māori religion were the atua or gods. In Māori belief the natural and supernatural worlds were one – there was no Māori word for religion. The use of the term 'whakapono' for religion was introduced by missionaries.Can non Māori have mana? ›
It is interesting to note the rise of the use of mana in some non- Māori quarters. It is an alternative to power and may offer a way of communicating something essential without becoming involved in the meanings associated with power.What are the 4 main ethical principles in research? ›
The four fundamental principles of ethics which are being underscored are autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice.What are the 5 ethical guidelines? ›
Reviewing these ethical principles which are at the foundation of the guidelines often helps to clarify the issues involved in a given situation. The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are each absolute truths in and of themselves.
What are the 4 basic principles of research? ›
Answer and Explanation: The four basic principles of research are classified as; autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.What are the 4 cornerstones of Māori health? ›
Four cornerstones of health have been recognised: te taha wairua (a spiritual dimension), te taha hinengaro (a psychic dimension), te taha tinana (a bodily dimension), te taha whanau (a family dimension).What are the 3 P's in healthcare? ›
The 3 P's model encompasses an evidence‐based approach to preparation, protection and prevention, for safety of patients and healthcare staff.What are Māori models of health? ›
Te Whare Tapa Whā – Mason Durie
Taha tinana (physical health – capacity for physical growth and development) Taha wairua (spiritual health – the capacity for faith and wider communication) Taha whānau (family health – the capacity to belong, to care and to share)
Māori health is underpinned by four dimensions representing the basic beliefs of life – te taha hinengaro (psychological health); te taha wairua (spiritual health); te taha tinana (physical health); and te taha whānau (family health). These four dimensions are represented by the four walls of a house.What are the three concepts that shape Māori understandings of citizenship? ›
Manaakitanga—showing respect, generosity and care for others. Whanaungatanga—reciprocal relationships. Kaitiakitanga—guardianship, stewardship, trusteeship.What is the best healthcare model in the world? ›
South Korea. South Korea tops the list of best healthcare systems in the world. It's been praised for being modern and efficient, with quality, well-equipped medical facilities and highly trained medical professionals. Generally, treatment in South Korea is affordable and readily available.How many Māori health models are there? ›
One model for understanding Māori health is the concept of 'te whare tapa whā' – the four cornerstones (or sides) of Māori health. With its strong foundations and four equal sides, the symbol of the wharenui illustrates the four dimensions of Māori well-being.What are the 2 types of pōwhiri? ›
- Tau Utuutu. A kaikōrero (speaker) on the tangata whenua side starts, followed by a speaker from the manuhiri (visitors). ...
- Paeke. All of the kaikōrero on the tangata whenua (host) side speak first, after which, all of the kaikōrero on the manuhiri side respond.
- You should not just walk onto a marae; you need to be welcomed on.
- Women walk on as a group, while men also group together.
- Do not eat or drink during the welcome.
- Do not walk in front of a speaker on the marae ātea.
- Speak in Māori, not English, if giving a speech (unless expressly allowed).
What is the karakia in a pōwhiri? ›
Manuhiri may want to karakia (offer prayer) to ensure people's cultural safety and for the pōwhiri to be carried out without disturbance. Both manuhiri and tangata whenua can say karakia to bring people together and focus on the occasion.What does whakawhanaungatanga mean? ›
Whanaungatanga = Relationship. Whakawhanaungatanga = The process of establishing relationships.Can non Māori have a pepeha? ›
In essence, the pepeha is an introduction for any person and their affiliations in a Māori context for one purpose, to make connections. I'm emphasising this because most people mistakenly think that the pepeha is all about introducing yourself.What does Tena tatou katoa? ›
Tēnā koutou katoa, I greet you with a traditional welcome in Te Reo Māori, one of New Zealand's three official languages.How do you introduce yourself in Te Reo? ›
A pepeha is the traditional Māori way to introduce oneself. It connects us to our tribal lineage and ancestors, tracing our connection to maunga, waka, awa, and more. Standing and sharing pepeha is how Māori introduce themselves and make links with others, mostly in formal situations.What are the different types of karakia? ›
There are different types of karakia including Inoi~request, Christian and 'tūturu' ~traditional. Inoi are simple requests for something to be performed or done. Christian karakia were written in the nineteenth century and include references to the Christian God and Jesus Christ.What does Whakatau Mai mean? ›
The phrases nau mai, haere mai, whakatau mai, tauti mai piki mai and kake mai all mean 'welcome'.Why do Māori take their shoes off? ›
Respect is shown for the tipuna (ancestor) by removing shoes.What religion is Māori culture? ›
Until the mid-20th century, few Māori were secular. Traditionally Māori recognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māori transformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianity their own.
BELIEFS. Traditional Maori believe that the spirit continues to exist after death and that the deceased will always be a part of the marae (traditional meeting place). Once someone has died they will go to the spirit world.
What does kaupapa wananga mean? ›
Kaupapa Wānanga is a way of describing our unique Te Wānanga o Aotearoa way of being and doing things and has been born from our mission and philosophy. It guides us to put our mission, philosophy and values into action. It helps us consider all we do in relation to its four takepū (applied principles).How do you differentiate research & non research? ›
The guidance notes that the major difference between research and non-research lies in the primary intent of the activity. The primary intent of research is to generate or contribute to generalizable knowledge.What is kaupapa research? ›
Kaupapa Māori is a 'home grown' form of critical theory that focuses on emancipation (Smith, 1999). It refers to a framework or methodology for thinking about and undertaking research by Māori, with Māori, for the benefit of Māori (Bishop, 1998; Smith 1999).How do I research my Native American ancestry? ›
www.ancestry.com Includes easy access to Indian Census Rolls and links to possible matches in its large collection of records. www.bia.gov/bia/ois/tgs/genealogy Publishes a downloadable Guide to Tracing Your Indian Ancestry. Has a vast online library, Tracing Native American Family Roots.How do I research my family lineage? ›
- The National Archives and Records Administration has a collection of resources for genealogists. ...
- State archives contain materials including: ...
- The U.S. Census Bureau will provide census data from 1950 - 2010 to the person named in the record or their legal heir.
An iwi registration document is the primary and preferred method the University of Otago uses to verify your Māori ancestry. If you have multiple iwi you only need to provide a registration document for one of your iwi. If you are not registered with your iwi you will need to apply directly to them.What are the principles of Mātauranga Māori? ›
Mātauranga Māori will articulate and include both physical and non-physical values (such as mahinga kai species, swimmability, sense of place, identity and relationships, and wai tapu) and the positive and negative influencers of these values.What are the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi in research? ›
The Treaty of Waitangi principles of partnership, participation and protection provide a framework for identifying Māori ethical issues in terms of; rights, roles and responsibilities of researchers and Māori communities; the contribution that research makes towards providing useful and relevant outcomes; and ...What are the principles of indigenous research methodologies? ›
Often cited as ''the four R's,'' there are four axiological assumptions embedded within indigenous research: responsibility, respect, reciprocity, and, taken together as one assumption, rights and regulations.What are Māori cultural practices and protocols? ›
Māori culture is a rich and varied one, and includes traditional and contemporary arts. Traditional arts such as carving, weaving, kapa haka (group performance), whaikorero (oratory) and moko (tattoo) are practised throughout the country.
What is the difference between science and mātauranga Māori? ›
Science is about finding out why and how things happen (such as why and how karaka berries are poisonous and how preparation removes the poison). Mātauranga Māori takes many forms of knowledge, including environmental knowledge and traditional cultural practice. Mātauranga Māori is a knowledge base in its own right.What is Māori pedagogy? ›
Maori pedagogy is not simply an English-language curriculum that is translated into Maori but rather an incorporation of Maori values, goals, context, and customs.What is the importance of mātauranga Māori? ›
The importance of Mātauranga Māori
Show respect for Māori knowledge and values. Share valuable and unique insights and information. Educate future generations of Māori and non-Māori. Empower Māori communities to preserve their Mātauranga.
The 3 P's of the Treaty of Waitangi in education are - partnership, participation and protection.What are the 3 P's of the Treaty of Waitangi in nursing? ›
The “3 Ps” comprise the well-established Crown Treaty framework – the principles of partnership, participation and protection.What are the four basic principles of ethical guidelines for human research? ›
The four fundamental principles of ethics which are being underscored are autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice.What are the 5 R's of Indigenous research? ›
The five R's of Indigenous research: Relationship, respect, relevance, responsibility, and reciprocity.What are the 4 R's of Indigenous research? ›
Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity and Responsibility: The “4Rs” of Indigenous Research.What are the three R's of Indigenous research? ›
First Nations and Higher Education: The Four R's – Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity, and Responsibility.